Saturday, August 22, 2020

Labovian Narrative Analysis Essay Sample free essay sample

In this paper. I play out a story examination on a â€Å"oral portrayal of individual experience† ( Labov. 2011 ) . As follows. Segment 1 examines the methodological examination used to execute the investigation. Segment 2 talks about the development of the story and presents the outcomes of the examination. furthermore, Section 3 finishes up with a summarize of the story and investigations. Area 1: Methodology For this examination. I utilized an individual encounter that is named an evoked portrayal. which implies I requested that the individual part an account on the other hand of trusting on obviously happening everyday informations ( Labov. 1997 ) . The account is told by a family unit connection of mine. Lisa. It is about an extrasensory encounter she had as a child in Sydney. Australia and includes the free movement of an even exhibit while Lisa and others were at a detached house. To dissect Lisa’s story. I utilized Labov’s unique hypothetical record of story. which separates a story into discernable classs: Abstract. We will compose a custom paper test on Labovian Narrative Analysis Essay Sample or on the other hand any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Direction. Confusing Action. Assessment. also, Coda. In add-on. I utilized general Labovian portrayal hypothesis to delineate the worldly development and guide of Lisa’s story ; all things considered. I have shunned using the term Resolution because of its vagueness in Labov’s writing. Beneath. in Narrative A. the story has been interpreted to facilitate the undermentioned account investigation. Every free statement is numbered. and every single ward proviso are indented underneath them. Account An: A history of Lisa’s extrasensory experience ( 1 ) Yeah. once I had this really fascinating extrasensory experience ( 2 ) Uh. a while ago when I was in High School in Sydney in around 1977. ( 3 ) my folks were house chasing( 4 ) and quiet and I were watch intoing out a house in Killara they were keen on. ( 5 ) Equally quickly as we ventured through the front entryway into the expansive. sunstruck lobby. ( 6 ) we were both intrigued by the inviting air in the house. ( 7 ) There were a couple of household items in the corridor including an old-clock plate plain cluster which had genuinely old Castor wheels on it the sort that don’t turn over extremely simple even on smooth floors like that lobby. ( 8 ) The plate plain cluster was standing to some degree at a point to the divider and the forepart fringe was around 2 inches more distant from the divider than the back outskirt. ( 9 ) I saw this since we had been remaining in the corridor bite the destining to the house owner. Mrs. C. for a piece ( 10 ) when a grown-up male we nt to the front entryway. ( 11 ) Mum and I were standing up to off from the entryway and towards the plain exhibit. ( 12 ) Mrs. C at the entryway had her back turned( 13 ) yet her visitant at the front entryway had an away from of it ( the plain exhibit ) ( 14 ) No-one was remaining inside 5 pess of the even cluster( 15 ) and nobody was venturing out going to do the floor to travel ( 16 ) however that table actually great and purposefully moved in on its ain towards the divider to sit perfectly corresponding to it. ( 17 ) The quiet was stunning! ( 18 ) The grown-up male at the entryway quit talking for a few seconds ( 19 ) so pointed at the even exhibit( 20 ) and in an extremely unsteady voice said â€Å"That table simply moved! † . ( 21 ) Mrs C just sort of said â€Å"hmmm†( 22 ) and closed the discussion.( 23 ) He left.( 24 ) she turned around to us.( 25 ) and proceeded with our confab( 26 ) as if nil had occurred.( 27 ) Suffice to express that was simply the principal brush of a few I had in that house. Segment 2: Results A ; Analysis In the undermentioned developments. I principal depict the general characteristics of every account class ; second. explain Lisa’s story in footings of the account classs ; and. third. show the examination of Lisa’s account in footings of Labovian story hypothesis. Area 2. 05: The Most Reportable Event Before diving recklessly into the examination. it will turn out worthwhile to determine the term most reportable occasion ( MRE ) . Fitting to Labov. some random portrayal is developed around the MRE. It is the ground for the account in the principal topographic point. By and large it alludes to a remarkable or uncommon occasion that significantly influences the members in question. The more remarkable the occasion shows up. the less believability it will keep. what's more, feebleness versa. In this manner it is important for the story to set up validity somewhere else. in any case the portrayal will result in disappointment. Segment 2. 1: Abstraction Deliberations. like those in scholastic articles. happen toward the start of writings and gracefully an inclusive depiction of the data to follow. It could be said. they show what the peruser can foresee the article to be around. In footings of individual portrayals. the Abstract educates the listener what the account will be around and that it will get down in the blink of an eye thereupon. Statement ( 1 ) of Lisa’s account is an extraordinary outline of story abstracts: ( 1 ) Yeah. once I had this really intriguing extrasensory experience Lisa starts her story by quickly saying that she encountered something past the ordinary extent of record. This announcement illuminates the listener that they can foresee an account and choice strange. Area 2. 2: Orientation Quickly following the Abstract. the talker lays everything out by orientating the listener to the environing components associated with the account. Labovian account hypothesis alludes to this as the Orientation. It has two aims: preeminent. to find the clasp. topographic point. members. furthermore, general events of the account ; and second. to set up the believability of the MRE. The Orientation builds up believability by get bringing down the story with an occasion that would be stupid to ask around. for example, common occasions. which are occasions that need association in themselves ( Labov. 2002 ) . Normal lingual attributes of the Orientation are past continuous action words and fleeting aides. In Lisa’s account the Orientation starts with provisions ( 2-4 ) : ( 2 ) Uh. a while ago when I was in High School in Sydney in around 1977. ( 3 ) my folks were house chasing ( 4 ) and quiet and I were watch intoing out a house in Killara they were intrigued in.Here. she presents the foundation data expected to proceed with the parity of the story: Sydney. a house. Lisa and others. what's more, a loosened house stroll through. There is no ground to ask about how these occasions came around. since they are so ordinary. In this way. the validity of the portrayal is non in request. In add-on to statements ( 2-4 ) . conditions ( 7 ) and ( 8 ) can be viewed as segment of the Orientation as great. since they add to the scene ; in any case. they have been joined into the Complicating Action. Tragically. I will non talk the Orientation any more remote because of vast restrictions. Segment 2. 3: Complicating Action The Complicating Action is the account appropriate. It is the thing that the Abstract and Orientation set up to be told. By and large it contains a lot of back to back provisos. called a story connection. which paves the way to the narrative’s MRE. Each successive proviso endeavors to answer the request â€Å"what happened following? † and can use the basic days of old or current states to venture to every part of the story forward. In footings of Lisa’s account. the Complicating Action is bookended by statements ( 5 ) and ( 16 ) the story’s MRE. Be that as it may. non all the provisos in the middle of can be viewed as statements of baffling activity. This is on the grounds that they are non a bit of the story link and administration as review perceptions. For case. provisos ( 11-15 ) point of convergence on the participants’ propinquity and direction to the even cluster ; they do non please the account forward. Truth be told. by focusing on these c onventional occasions. they hinder the story and rise the anticipation of the most reportable occasion. On the off chance that we expel all the provisos that do non loan to the forward movement. the genuine story connection gets obvious: ( 5 ) Equally in the blink of an eye as we ventured through the front entryway into the wide. sunstruck corridor. ( 6 ) we were both dazzled by the inviting climate in the house. ( 9 ) I saw this since we had been remaining in the corridor bite the destining to the house owner. Mrs. C. for a piece ( 10 ) when a grown-up male went to the front entryway. ( 16 ) however that table actually wonderfully and purposefully moved in on its ain towards the divider to sit perfectly corresponding to it.These five provisions establish the Complicating Action and. as should be obvious. it is nearly short in contrasting with the full story. In spite of the fact that provision ( 10 ) is important for the Evaluation. indeed, even the man’s debut is non basic to the narrative’s designed development. It is conceivable at that spot was non a lot of a story to state. but since the validity of the MRE was flawed. weaving of the account connection with standard. consequently less sketchy. occasions expanded the validity of the MRE and delivered a more extended account. Area 2. 4: Evaluation The Evaluation region serves a couple of purposes. first it legitimizes the story and the talker for saving the floor for each piece long as they have ; second. it serves to set up the MRE as the ground for the account ; and third. it gives data about what occurred after the MRE and its effects on those take separating. Normal lingual attributes in assessing provisions are modals. negatives. evaluating critique. implanted location. what's more, irrealis conditions. Statement ( 17 ) starts the Evaluation development in Lisa’s story: ( 17 ) The quietness

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

The Effect of PTSD on People With Bipolar Disorder

The Effect of PTSD on People With Bipolar Disorder PTSD Related Conditions Print The Effect of PTSD on People With Bipolar Disorder By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on September 14, 2019 Bipolar Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Your Rights Martin Dimitrov / Getty Images Within the U.S., approximately 4% of adults will have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder at some point in their lives.?? What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is considered a mood disorder. There are two types of bipolar disorders, described as bipolar I and bipolar II. PTSD: Coping, Support, and Living Well In bipolar I disorder, a person has experienced one or more manic episodes. In most cases of bipolar I, episodes of major depression are a central aspect of the overall course of the illness. In bipolar II disorder,  hypomanic  episodes have been experienced but not manic episodes. In addition, to be diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, a person needs to have also experienced a  major depressive episode?? Bipolar disorder can have a major impact on your life; and it can also increase the risk that you develop other disorders. In fact, people with bipolar disorder have been found to be at high risk for developing a number of other mental health disorders.?? One such disorder that co-occurs with bipolar disorder at high rates is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and PTSD A review published in 2017 concluded that up to 40% of people with bipolar disorder also meet criteria for PTSD.?? It is not entirely surprising that high rates of PTSD are found among people with bipolar disorder, as many people with bipolar also have a history of traumatic exposure. Traumatic exposure may be more likely to occur during a manic episode when a person with bipolar disorder is more likely to make risky or impulsive decisions. In addition to being a risk factor for the development of PTSD, traumatic exposure during childhood, such as childhood physical or sexual abuse, may also be risk factors for the development of bipolar disorder.?? Overview of PTSD The Effect of PTSD Among People With Bipolar Disorder Having PTSD along with bipolar disorder can have a major negative impact on your life. People with PTSD and bipolar disorder appear to have more problems across a number of different areas in their lives. For example, PTSD has been found to worsen the quality of life for people with bipolar disorder. A 2010 study found that patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD experienced more rapid cycling periods and increased risk for suicide attempts.?? Finally, PTSD has also been found to be associated with greater levels of depression among people with bipolar disorder, according to a 2013 study.?? How to Find Help If you have PTSD and bipolar disorder, it is very important to take steps to manage both conditions. There are a number of healthy coping strategies for managing your symptoms as well as effective treatments for bipolar disorder and PTSD. Check websites to help you find treatment providers in your area who specialize in PTSD and/or bipolar disorder. The Best Online Therapy Programs

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Laws And Conventions Affecting Indigenous Peoples - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1205 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Review Did you like this example? With a substantial portion of the worlds indigenous peoples living in Asia and the Pacific, virtually every country in the region has an indigenous population. While the effectiveness of provisions may vary, some countries recognize the unique status of indigenous peoples and offer the privileges and protections of citizenship. Few countries have enacted laws that recognize any rights of indigenous peoples to ancestral lands, or that support indigenous peoples regaining and strengthening their social, cultural, and legal institutions. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Laws And Conventions Affecting Indigenous Peoples" essay for you Create order In many cases, enforcement of laws that may exist has been inadequate. Some countries have experienced conflicts between interests of indigenous peoples and interests of dominant and mainstream communities. These conflicts most often relate to control over and exploitation of natural resources in the areas indigenous peoples claim as traditional domains. Appropriation of ancestral territories or resources in these territories by governments or external interests most often is justified as a part of economic development and growth. Indigenous peoples sparse occupation of large areas of land and nonintensive use of resources often is characterized by external interests as economic inefficiency or lost opportunity. Indigenous peoples land and resource management practices sometimes are viewed as unsustainable or environmentally damaging. At the national level, in some cases, new laws, policies, and other measures may be necessary to reconcile competing demands and conflicting inte rests, especially if interests of indigenous peoples are to be protected. In any case, however, the Bank must respect the will of governments, including legislation and policy that exists and the power of eminent domain that governments possess. Country programs and project selection will be developed in cooperation with governments. When difficulties are encountered, the Bank may be able to provide guidance or assistance through mechanisms such as policy dialogue and technical assistance. International Conventions and Declarations The international community has shown increasing concern for the protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. Conventions and declarations of the international community provide a broad framework, as well as specific statements regarding the protection of indigenous peoples and their interests, cultures, ways of life, cultural survival, and development. It may be noted that some international instruments relating to indigenous peoples have not been ratified by large numbers of the international community. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) have specific significance for indigenous peoples. The Universal Declaration provides a common standard for the human rights of all peoples and all nations, and proclaims the importance of traditional, political, and civil rights, as well as basic economic social and cultural rights. The Covenant spells out civil and political rights and guiding pri nciples based on the Universal Declaration. The 1957 International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention No. 107, Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries, addresses the right of indigenous peoples to pursue material well-being and spiritual development, and was a first international instrument in specific support of indigenous peoples. Largely because of its view that indigenous peoples should be integrated into the larger society, a view that subsequently came to be seen by many as inappropriate, Convention No. 107 was followed in 1989 by ILO Convention 169, Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries. Convention No. 169 presents the fundamental concept that the way of life of indigenous and tribal peoples should and will survive, as well as the view that indigenous and tribal peoples and their traditional organizations should be closely involved in the planning and implemen tation of development projects that affect them. As the most comprehensive and most current international legal instrument to address issues vital to indigenous and tribal peoples, Convention No. 169 includes articles that deal with consultation and participation, social security and health, human development, and the environment. To date, Convention No. 169 has been ratified by only a few countries, and so far by none in the Asian and Pacific Region. Agenda 21 adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 recognizes the actual and potential contribution of indigenous and tribal peoples to sustainable development. The 1992 Convention on Biodiversity calls on contracting parties to respect traditional indigenous knowledge with regard to the preservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action emerging from the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights recognizes the dignity and unique cultural co ntributions of indigenous peoples, and strongly reaffirms the commitment of the international community to the economic, social, and cultural well-being of indigenous peoples and their enjoyment of the fruits of sustainable development. The United Nations 1993 Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, developed with the direct participation of indigenous peoples representatives and currently under consideration within the United Nations, addresses issues such as the right to participation, the right of indigenous peoples to direct their own development, the right of indigenous peoples to determine and develop priorities and strategies for the development or use of ancestral territories and resources, and the right to self-determination. The emerging concern for indigenous peoples prompted the United Nations to declare 1993 as the International Year of the Worlds Indigenous Peoples and the decade from December 1994 as the Indigenous Peoples Decade. Practices of Other International Institutions Among comparator organizations, World Bank policies and practices are the most relevant to the Bank. The World Banks Operational Directive 4.20: Indigenous Peoples establishes specific approaches to indigenous peoples in World Bank operations. Through its operational directive, the World Bank recognizes and takes into consideration issues such as the identification of indigenous peoples, the attachment of indigenous peoples to land and resources, the significance of distinct linguistic and cultural identities, and the primarily subsistence nature of indigenous peoples production systems. World Bank policy calls for indigenous peoples informed and willing participation in development, and respect for indigenous peoples dignity, human rights, and cultural uniqueness. For development interventions that affect indigenous peoples directly and significantly, an indigenous peoples development plan is required. Another comparator organization with direct relevance to the Bank is the Int er-American Development Bank (IDB). While IDB does not have a specific policy addressing indigenous peoples, it does address their concerns through its operational activities, an approach IDB considers more relevant to the circumstances of its region. Operational processes relating to involuntary resettlement, poverty reduction, rural development, and environmental and social impact assessment all include specific consideration of indigenous peoples concerns. In the IDB region, the poorest segments of society often are indigenous peoples, and projects are designed specifically to assist these groups. In the IDB, creation of special funds to support activities such as enterprise development and capacity building provide other avenues for the pursuit of issues relating to indigenous peoples. The representative offices that IDB maintains in its client countries provide a basis for country-specific consideration of indigenous peoples concerns. Among United Nations agencies, the Unite d Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has undertaken a number of programs to address indigenous peoples concerns. In the Banks region, the objectives of UNDPs Highland Peoples Programme, covering Cambodia, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Thailand, and Viet Nam, are to increase organizational capacities and opportunities among highland communities, in participatory planning, management, and coordination; establish and/or reinforce exchange mechanisms and procedures; and work for the overall development of highland communities in the four countries covered.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Women in the Israeli Army Essays - 1382 Words

Women have always played a very integral role in the Israel Defence Forces (IDF), since its inception in 1948 shortly after the declaration of the State of Israel. The IDF is regarded as one of the most well trained armed forces in the world thanks in part to the progressive changes in the military with regards to equality for women. Historically, at the ground roots of the IDF, women were held back from combat and served mostly in a variety of support duties under the command of Chen (Women’s Army Corps). These support duties were extremely important to the functioning of the IDF, but did not satisfy those women who wanted a more active front line role. The aftermath of the Yom Kippur war in 1973 initiated a great change in military†¦show more content†¦If the daughters of Israel are absent from the army, then the character of the Yishuv (Jewish Community in Israel) will be distorted† â€Å"Israel Defence Forces - The Beginning, Women in the Early IDF†. A female unit that was responsible for all the women who served for the country was created. This unit was called Chen which is the Hebrew acronym for The Women’s Army Corps. They took care of all the women’s needs, and supplied them with jobs in the immigrant neighbourhoods of Israel. They also served in many support positions such as signal operators, drivers, cooks, medical assistants, educators, and administrators. Ben-Gurion’s vision of equality did not prove to be true as women were restricted from active combat roles in the IDF. One of the main reasons women were not allowed to participate in active combat was for fear of being captured as a prisoner of war. The reality that women soldiers would become victims of rape and sexual molestation if captured was far greater than it was for men. Also, the very strict Military Laws developed at the beginning of the IDF clearly restricted women from participating in any combat situations. 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Investigating the changing effects of temperature Free Essays

Investigating the effects of changing temperature on the activity of enzymes Background information: Renin is an enzyme that catalyses the coagulation of milk. It is found in the stomach of many animals and is used in making cheeses and Junkets. It is found in the gastric juices or gastric mucosa of many mammals, including humans. We will write a custom essay sample on Investigating the changing effects of temperature or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the human stomach, particularly those of infants, rennin works to curdle milk so that pepsin, another stomach enzyme, can further breakdown the proteins into absorbable amino acids called polypeptides. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of changing temperature on the activity of enzymes. After experimentation the optimum temperature for enzyme activity will be established and the effects of varing temperature will be identified. Several experiments have already been conducted testing similar hypothesis and aims. All of these experiments also had very similar results. They found that approximately 370C was the optimal temperature for rennin; it was at this temperature that the milk solidified quickest. Below that the reaction would occur far more slowly, sometime taking hours to complete, sometimes not reacting at all. Above 370C, at approximately 450C, the enzyme would become enatured and the reaction would never occur, even after the temperature was lowered back down to 370C. 1 Aim: To investigate the reaction rate of the enzyme rennin at various temperatures Hypothesis: It is predicted that a rise in temperature (to approximately 400C) will increase enzyme activity. Wth further increase of temperature the protein enzymes will denature, lose their shape and therefore decrease in activity. Risk assessment: Risk Precaution Burns from the hot water bath or hot plate Ensure that all hot baths are set up in a visible area that is surrounded by minimal movement. If burns occur run affected area under cold water for 5-10 minutes depending on severity. Major burns should seek medical assistance Glass breakage can cause cuts/wounds Use test tube rack to steady test tubes. If glass breakage occurs immediately alert teacher, sweep up broken glass using a broom or dust pan and dispose of it in the appropriate bin Apparatus: Equipment Rationale 1 hot plate Heats water in hot bath for raising temperatures of milk and rennin above 300C 1 hot bath holds water which is heated by not plate 1 ice bath (500mL beaker + 6-7 ice cubes) Cools milk and rennin for testing temperatures below 300C regular test tubes Holds the 20mLs of milk required for each trial 3 micro test tubes Holds the small amount of rennin required 1 test tube rack Holds regular sized test tubes in place so handling does not influence reaction 20mL of milk Acts as substrate 2mL of rennin solution Acts as enzyme for milk 1 large pipette Gives precise measurment of milk 1 syringe Gives precise measurement of rennin 2 thermometers Measures temperature of milk and rennin when they are heated or cooled 1 timer Measures time taken for milk to set Method: Constant Variables Factor Importance Method of control Volume of milk The amount of milk determines the amount of substrate the enzyme has to work on which therefore effects the reaction rate. Keeping a constant amount of milk for each trial. Use Pipette Volume of rennin The amount of enzymes determines the amount of chemical reactions possible to occur. Keeping a constant amount of enzymes for each trial- Iml per every 10ml of substrate. Use a syringe Rennin and milk brought to the same testing temperature Temperatures must be constant for both substances to ensure accuracy when they are mixed. Place each substance in a hot or cold water bath with thermometers in their test tubes. Remove from water bath when the same temperature has been reached Same time recorder Timing must be accurate. With the same person reaction rate to press go and stop would be similar for each trial. Have the same time recorder for every trial possible Same setting standard A setting standard must be determined to make timing of reaction rate accurate. Make a class decision on what is classified as set Standerdized thermometers To ensure accurate temperature readings Ensure all thermometers are standardized before experimentation Type of milk- from the same container Different types of milk may influence enzyme activity Use the same milk for each trial Type of Junket- from the same container Different types of rennin may influence enzyme activity Use the same rennin for each trial Whether the solutions should be stirred or not A stirred or shaken solution may speed up reaction rate because more enzyme collisions would occur and faster Make a class decision on whether to shake/stir mixture or keep it still 1 . Measure 20mls of milk using the pippette and release it into a regular test tube 2. Measure 2mls of rennin using the syringe and release it into a micro test tube 3. Place thermometers in both test tubes ensuring that the rennin does not overflow 4. Fill a 500ml beaker with 250ml of water and 6-7 ice cubes 5. Place both test tubes in the ice bath 6. Watch both thermometers until they reach OOC 7. Pour the rennin solution into the test tube of milk. Begin timing as soon as all the rennin is poured into the milk 8. Shake the test tube slighlty to mix the rennin and milk together 9. Stop the timer once precipitate has formed or the milk has completely solidified 10. Repeat steps 1-9 using various other temperatures Note: use a hot plate and hot water bath when testing temperatures above 300C Results: Temperature ( C) Average time taken for milk to set (min) No reaction – did not set 10 5min + 20 4:42 4:37 1. 29 50 1. 48 70 Discussion: When temperatures were either very low or very high enzyme activity did not occur or was minimal. This is because cooler temperatures decrease the amount of kinetic energy within the enzyme molecules. If there is not a substantial amount of kinetic energy, enzyme molecules are unable to collide with their substrate which therefore prevents reaction from occurring. Because enzymes are proteins when temperatures were too high the enzymes denatured, lost their structure and shape, making their active sites no longer complementary to their substrate’s. At temperatures around 40-50C enzyme activity rapidly increased and the milk set under two minutes. This temperature range is therefore the optimum temperature for enzyme activity because enzymes obtain substantial amounts of kinetic energy and do not become denatured. Accuracy was not constant throughout the experiment as small amounts of rennin were lost everytime a thermometer was placed in the micro test tube. Some milk was also lost when the rennin was added to it and the test tube was shaken. This may have affected the reaction rate of the enzymes. It was very difficult to calculate the exact temperature t which the enzyme and substrate were mixed because their temperatures dropped or rose rapidly when they were removed from the hot or cold baths. This further affected the accuracy of the experiment as temperatures tested were not exact. Repeated trials of the same temperature all had similar results which made the averages precise. There were no outliers so averages were not too high or too low. If an outlier occurred during experimentation because of known reasons the trial was tested again. Each temperature was tested three times making the experiment reasonably reliable however different groups tested each temperature which may ave affected the reaction times recorded because of different perceptions about setting points and the speed of the persons timing. The limitations of this experiment were therefore caused by human error To prevent errors during experimentation more caution should have been taken when: mixing and shaking substances, recording the reaction rate, interpretation of setting time and the handling of test tubes. When shaking and handling the test tubes a stopper should have been used to prevent loss of mixture and exposure of heat from the person’s hands. Timing should have been conducted by the same person for every trial however this would ave taken far too long. Interpretation of setting time should have been clearly explained or demonstrated before conducting the experiment. The results of this experiment correlated closely to research undertaken about the effects of changing temperature on enzymes. This therefore made the practical more valid and reliable. Most constant variables were followed and monitored precisely which further added to the fairness of experimentation. A few constant variables that may have been affected by human error were the temperatures at which the substances were brought to, the volume of rennin and the perceptions of the milks setting point, lthough the same instructions were given to all students . Conclusion: Enzyme activity therfore increases as temperatures increase to their optimum temperature (37-450C). Once temperatures exceed the optimum temperature the enzymes denature (lose their shape) and become inactive. How to cite Investigating the changing effects of temperature, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Sound In Poetry Essays (1013 words) - Poetic Rhythm, Alliteration

Sound In Poetry Poems usually begin with words or phrase which appeal more because of their sound than their meaning, and the movement and phrasing of a poem. Every poem has a texture of sound, which is at least as important as the meaning behind the poem. Rhythm, being the regular recurrence of sound, is at the heart of all natural phenomena: the beating of a heart, the lapping of waves against the shore, the croaking of frogs on a summer's night, the whisper of wheat swaying in the wind. Rhythm and sound and arrangement ?the formal properties of words?allow the poet to get beyond, or beneath the surface of a poem. Both Gwendolyn Brooks' "Sadie and Maud" (799) and Anne Bradstreet's "To My Dear and Loving Husband" (784) emphasize poetic sound to express their themes. Used to enhance sound in a poem, alliteration is the repetition of sound in consecutive or neighboring words, usually at the beginning of words. Both Brooks and Bradstreet make use of alliteration in their poems. "Sadie stayed at home. / Sadie scraped life..." (2-3) the repetition of s is evident in these two lines, reflecting the sassiness and independence that Sadie possessed. "Then while we live, in love lets [persevere]" (11) the slow musical repetition of the l sounds reflect the romantic emphasis in the poem. Assonance?the repetition of the same or similar vowel sound, especially in stressed syllables?can also enrich a poem. Assonance can be used to unify a poem as in Bradstreet's poem in which it emphasizes the thematic connection among words and unifies the poem's ideas of the husband and wife becoming one. "Compare with me ye woman if you can" (4). In Brook's poem, repeated vowel sounds extend throughout. Brooks indirectly links certain words and by connecting these words, she calls attention to the imagery that helps communicate the poems theme of how different two people who grew up in the same household can be. "Under her maiden name/ Maud and Ma and Papa..." (10-11). In addition to alliteration and assonance, poets create sound patterns with rhyme. The conventional way to describe a poem's rhyme scheme is to chart rhyming words that appear at the ends of lines. In Brooks' poem the rhyme scheme is abcb, defe which reinforces the way two things can begin the same, but change as time goes on. Naturally, rhyme does not have to be subtle to enrich a poem. An obvious rhyme scheme like the one in Bradstreet's poem is aabb, ccdd can communicate meaning by forcing attention on a relationship between two people that are not normally linked. The poem's theme speaks of the husband and wife becoming one, the poem's rhyme scheme is of two consecutive lines belonging together and having one sound. Rhyme can also be classified according to the position of the rhyming syllables in a line of verse. Bradstreet's poem contains beginning rhyme, Brooks' poem, on the other hand, contains only end rhyme. "I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold/ My love is such that rivers cannot quench/ Thy love is such I can in no way repay"(5, 7, 9). "Her girls struck out from home/ Her fine-tooth comb" (14, 16). Poets, too, create rhyme by using repeated words and phrases. "Sadie scraped life/ with a fine-toothed comb" (3-4) and "Sadie had left as heritage/ her fine-tooth comb" (15-16). The repeated phrases "Sadie" and "Maud", which shift from one subject to the other and back again "Maud went to college/ Sadie stayed at home" (1-2). The poem has a singing rhythm that resembles a song that children play to. The remembrance of carefree childhood ironically contrasts with the adulthood that both Sadie and Maud now face as they grow up: Sadie stays home and has two children out of wedlock; Maud goes to college and ends up "a thin brown mouse". Repeated phrases in Bradstreet's poem include "if ever" and"love". "If ever two were one then surely we. / If ever man were loved by wife then thee" (1-2). "My Love is such that rivers cannot quench, / Nor ought but love from the give recompence" (9-10). With such recurrence, the poem is like a slow romantic song and the repeated words are its rhythm. Meter, the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that govern a poem's lines, largely creates poetic rhythm. This gives readers the "beat" of the poem and approximates the sound of spoken language. The meter of Bradstreet's poem is iambic pentameter and it is evident throughout the poem. It contributes